Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a type of behavioral disorder. It is usually diagnosed in childhood . Children with this condition are uncooperative, defiant and hostile toward peers, parents, teachers and other authority figures.
What causes ODD in children ?
The exact cause of this condition is unknown but 2 main theories exist.
- Developmental therapy : This theory suggests that the problems starts when child is a toddler. Children and teen with this condition may have had trouble learning to become independent from a parent or other main person to whom they were emotionally attached. Their behavior may be normal developmental issues that are lasting beyond the toddler years.
- Learning theory. This theory suggests that the negative symptoms of ODD are learned attitudes. That is they mirror the effects of negative reinforcement methods used by parents and others in power.The use of negative reinforcement increases the child’s ODD behaviors. This is because these behaviors allow the child to get what he or she wants such as attention and reaction from parents or others.
Which children are at risk ?
ODD is common in boys than girls. Children with the following mental disorder are more at risk and this includes :
- Mood or anxiety disorder
- Conduct disorder
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
What are the symptoms of ODD in a child
Symptoms of ODD may also show up in children who do not have the conditions. This is especially true for children around the ages of 2 or 3 or during their teen ages. Children usually disobey, or argue with parents and defy authority escpecilaly when they are upset, hungry or tired. However in children with ODD, this happens often. They may even interfere with learning and school adjustment and in some cases disrupt the child’s relationship with others.